2Division of Basic Medical Microbiology, State Key Laboratory for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, First Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine
In Pakistan, various bacteriological contaminations was concerned with drinking water. . several reports were conducted to notify the contaminated drinking water in Pakistan as given in Table 1. In most areas of Pakistan lakes, ground aquifers and rivers are mostly polluted with bacteriological contamination figure 1 . Water samples from treatment plants and water supply networks were found polluted by total coliform and in few regions, it was noticed with fecal coliform [18,19]. Shar., et al. 2008b investigated 768 water samples in Khairpur (Sindh Province) and their results indicated that water contamination by fecal and total coliform were 73.83% and 45.70%, respectively . Another report was conducted and in this report, the fecal and total coliforms were found 100% in the same city. The tested samples were calmed from distribution lines, consumer tips and from main reservoirs . The major cities of Pakistan like Lahore (Punjab province), Karachi (Sindh Province) and Peshawar (Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province) the drinking water condition is same. The bacteriological contamination was also noticed in these cities [22-26]. Another study was investigated among the main cities of the country and their results revealed that the E. coli and total coliforms were, 35% and 65 %, respectively. While for surface water the results were 100% for both bacterial contaminations .
|Sampling location||No. of samples||% of samples||References|
|Total||Contm. with total coliform||Contm. with fecal coliform||Contm. with total coliform||Contm. with fecal coliform|
|Rural areas of Punjab||-||-||-||91.30–95.83||-||(22)|
|Tap water Lahore city||-||-||-||42.85||-||(22)|
|Four villages in Peshawar||39||38||97.4||-||(26)|
|Nine different localities in Lahore||2160||446b||-||20.64b||-||(32)|
|Filtration plants, Islamabad||5||3||-||60||-||(33)|
|Filtration plants, Rawalpindi||26||14||-||53.8||-||(33)|
|Surface water samples from various sources in Pakistan||20||20||20||100||100||(16)|
|Groundwater samples from various sources in Pakistan||344||223||122||65||35||(16)|
|Fifteen tube wells around Nullah Lai Rawalpindi||15||14||-||93||-||(34)|
|Tap water (treated) Karachi city||329||-||94||-||28.5||(36)|
|Well water, Karachi city||30||23||76||(36)|
|Khairpur city, Sindh||768||567||351||73.83||45.70||(20)|
|Khairpur city, Sindh||90||90||90||100||100||(21)|
|Rawalpindi different locations||8c||2||2||25||25||(18)|
|Westridge area water distribution network, Rawalpindi||8c||8||8||100||100||(37)|
|Tench area water distribution network, Rawalpindi||8c||8||7||100||87.5||(37)|
|Ratta Amral water distribution network, Rawalpindi||8c||6||6||75||75||(19)|
|Input water sources of Rawal Lake, Islamabad||4||4||4||100||100||(27)|
|Rawal Lake, Islamabad (at various depth)||9||9||6||100||66.6||(27)|
In 2010 summer session, northern areas of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa were affected with 312 mm of rain for 56 hours continuously, which result in 1600 losses throughout in area. Additionally, with the record-breaking flood, almost 14 million people were directly affected (figure 2a, 2b). All those regions which were exaggerated with deluge were considering a suitable medium for the various kinds of pathogens. Leptospirosis, skin and eye infections, malaria, Leishmaniasis, diarrhea, hepatitis and respiratory infections were observed among different peoples after the record-breaking flood. In spreading of these diseases among the individuals, the unhygienic conditions in camps were also contributed .
As we search and look back to the previous study about leptospirosis in Pakistan we found a few reports published online. One of the study is about the sero-surveillance of human leptospirosis, 100 humans (78 males; 22 females) blood samples were collected from Lahore city and its peri-urban areas and processed by cELISA Serion ELISA classic microtiter plate. The results of this study revealed 44% prevalence of human leptospirosis. Among 78 males and 22 females, 38 males (49%) and 06 females (27%) were found positive. Age wise sero-surveillance demonstrates 47% prevalence in adults and 35% in young ones. Season-wise 42%, 40%, 26% and 47% were observed in summer, fall, winter, and spring, respectively. It is concluded that highest prevalence was in male adults while spring and summer were more susceptible seasons having leptospirosis infection .
I would like to thanks to all co-authors.
The authors declare no conﬂicts of interest.
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