Research Article
Volume 2 Issue 1 - 2018
Epidemiological, Clinical, Paraclinical, Etiological and Evolutionary Profile of Bronchiectasis
Dia S1*, Thiam K1, Mbaye FBR1, Cissé MF1, Ly M2, Sagne JMAN1, Ka W1, Ndao M1, Touré NO1 and DiaKane Y1
1Pneumology Department CHNU de Fann Dakar- Sénégal
2Radiology Department CHNU de Fann Dakar-Sénégal
*Corresponding Author: Dia S, Pneumology Department CHNU de Fann Dakar- Sénégal.
Received: August 07, 2018; Published: August 18, 2018
In tuberculosis endemic areas, bronchiectasis is one of the aftereffect that alter and disrupt the quality of life of patients. The aim of our study is to determine the epidemiological, clinical, paraclinical, etiological and evolutionary profile of bronchiectasis.
We report a descriptive retrospective study over a period of 12 months (December 2015 to November 2016) on 131 patients with bronchiectasis.
Our study included 131 patients with a relatively young population (mean age 44.87 years and extremes ranging from 16 to 83 years) and a clear male predominance (sex ratio was 1.85 including 85 men and 46 women). In the medical background, smoking was 38.16% (n = 50), pulmonary tuberculosis 77.09% (n = 101), and 4 patients living with HIV. (See Table 1)
The symptoms were dominated by mucosal bronchorrhea (50.38%), muco-purulent (41.22%), exercise dyspnea (83.96%), hemoptysis (37.40%) and dry cough (8.4%). Fifty-two (39.69%) patients had digital clubbing and 17 (12.97%) patients had signs of right heart failure. (See Table 1)
Chest imaging, in particular the thoracic CT scan, revealed more diffuse bronchiectasis (56.49% n = 74) than localized (43.51% n = 57) with a clear predominance of pure cystic forms (83.21% n = 57). 109) followed by mixed forms (14.50% n = 19) and pure cylindrical shapes (2, 29% n = 3). Associated signs were dominated by atelectasis in 53% of cases.
Cytobacteriological explorations allowed the isolation of one germ in 8 out of 10 patients, including 6 colonizations (4 pneumococci, 1klebsiella pneumoniae enterobacter) and 2 Escherichia coli infections sensitive to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid and resistant to ampicillin, ticarcillin and bactrim. Twenty-seven patients had carry out cardiac ultrasound with 48.15% of chronic pulmonary heart and 14.81% of isolated PAH. (see table 2)
Etiologies were respectively post-tuberculosis in 77.86% of cases (n = 102) indeterminate (12.98% n = 17), occupational PID (3.05% n = 4), active pulmonary tuberculosis (2.29% n = 3), rheumatoid arthritis (1.53% n = 2), ciliary dyskinesia (1.53%) including Kartagener's syndrome and Young's syndrome and post-infectious non-tuberculosis (0.76%) (see Table 2)
Two (2) patients underwent left lobectomy for an associated aspergillary transplant, 1 patient was on long-term oxygen therapy, and 15 deaths were noted. (See Table 2)
Our study, compared to the series made in Africa, particularly the Maghreb countries, with the series of Sahraoui K., et al. [1] in Algeria and Trigui., et al. [2] in Tunisia. We find that our study has a larger workforce with a male predominance. This could be explained by the capacity and the recruitment method of our service where we have 84 beds including 24 beds for women. Compared to the series of Sahraoui K., et al. [1], we notice the same diffuse topography with practically an average age that approaches with the same etiological profiles, the difference is in the forms of bronchiectasis (see table 3) Regarding the study by Trigui., et al. [2], we have the same profiles concerning gender and topography. Its etiological profile is closer to the European profile with ciliary dyskinesias as its main etiology.
In Senegal, bronchial dilatations are post-tuberculous, diffuse and a source of respiratory disability.
Table 1: Clinical profile of bronchiectasis Dakar-Senegal (n = 131).
           Paraclinical examinations Effective (n=) Percentage (%)
Thoracic CT scan Diffuse bronchiectasis 74 56,49
 Localized bronchiectasis 57 43,51
Cystic bronchiectasis 109 83,21
Cylindrical bronchiectasis 3 2,29
Mixed bronchiectasis 19 14,50
Cytobacter Iological examination of sputum Colonization 6 60
Pneumococcal 4 40
Infection Escherichia coli 2 20
Echocardiography Chronic pulmonary heart 13 48,15
Pulmonary arterial hypertension 4 14,81
Normal 10 37,04
Etiologies  Post- tuberculosis 102 77,86
Active tuberculosis 3 2,28
Occupational diffuse infiltrative pneumopathy 4 3,05
Rheumatoid arthritis 2 1,53
post- infectious non-tuberculosis 1 0,76
Ciliary dyskinesia 2 1,53
Indeterminate 17 12,98
Evolution Lobectomy 2
Long-term oxygenation at home 1
Death 15
Table 2: Paraclinical etiological and evolutionary profile of bronchiectasis Dakar-Sénégal (n = 131).
Table 3: Comparison between the bronchiectasis profiles.
  1. Sahraoui K., et al. "Etiological and therapeutic radiological clinical profile of bronchiectasis in Oran. About 76 cases". Revue des Maladies Respiratoires 35 (2018): 236.
  2. Trigui G., et al. "Current profile of bronhiectasis". Revue des Maladies Respiratoires 34 (2017): 252.
Citation: Dia S., et al. “Epidemiological, Clinical, Paraclinical, Etiological and Evolutionary Profile of Bronchiectasis”. Pulmonary Research and Respiratory Care 2.1 (2018): 154-157.
Copyright: © 2018 Dia S., et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.