|Programming and control||Guarantees the process of executing a task according to the objective (instruction or established rules)||Pre-frontal sectors of the left hemisphere|
|Sequential organization of movements and actions||Guarantees the fluent passage from one movement to another, inhibits the previous motor link for flexible passage to the subsequent motor link||Pre-motor areas of the left hemisphere|
|Phonematic ear||Guarantees the differentiation of verbal sounds of the language||Temporal zones of the left or right hemisphere for some languages|
|Analysis and Cenesthetic Synthesis||Fine tactile sensitivity, as well as the precision of postures and poses, articulation of language according to the point and mode of articulation||Parietal areas of the left hemisphere|
|Audio-verbal retention||Stability of the mnesic trace in verbal audio mode||Mesial temporal zones of the left hemisphere|
|Visual retention||Stability of the mnesic trace in the visual mode||Occipital areas|
|Perceptive Analytical||Perception and adequate production of essential features and their location and the spatial relationships between the elements of the situation.||Temporo-Parieto-Occipital left hemisphere|
|Global perceptive||Perception and adequate production of the general form, of the metric aspects and the proportions of objects.||Temporo-Parieto-Occipital Right hemisphere|
|General non-specific activation background||Background and stability of the execution of the action.||Subcortical structures reticular formation|
|Non-specific emotional general background||Emotional stability and background.||Medial Basal structure|
In order to perform a functional magnetic resonance with success, the participation of a multidisciplinary team, consisting of neuroradiology, resonance technician, bioengineer and neuropsychologist, is essential. The function of the neuropsychologist for studies with functional magnetic resonance is determinant and irreplaceable, includes aspects such as:
- Perform a neuropsychological assessment prior to functional magnetic resonance imaging, which allows: set a neuropsychological profile of the patient, and with this information select the appropriate paradigms for evaluation according to the findings, and on the other hand, train the patient to the study of functional magnetic resonance. It is important to set the neuropsychological profile of the patient because the functional magnetic resonance does not allow assessing the state of all cognitive processes nor determine the degree of severity of a cognitive impairment. Nor can you know the performance of the subject in different tasks such as writing, written calculation and praxias, by the limitation in mobility within the magnet.
- Design of tasks or paradigms. A paradigm is a set of stimuli that, organized with certain temporal patterns and designs, make up the tasks that the subject must perform during the acquisition of the images by functional magnetic resonance. Through the paradigms, cognitive processes can be set in motion to locate the functional architecture underlying them. The design of the paradigms must have a high specificity, comparable to the specificity of the neuropsychological batteries where the factors of each higher brain function are independent to evaluate what is really intended, they should be replicable for control studies and be designed according to the educational level of the subject,should be based on a solid knowledge of the cognitive processes to be studied, as well as their possible interactions with other processes that may be recruited during the experiment . There are basically two types of designs:
- Block designs: two situations are presented, one of activation with a specific stimulus and another of control or rest, with a neutral stimulus that prevents activation. The characteristics that ensure its success are: Duration to obtain a maximum contrast power between activation and control (usually between 20 and 30 seconds), periodicity of the blocks (every 5 seconds and that the resting condition Matches the respiration of the subject to avoid strange variables), number of blocks (A greater number of blocks, greater contrast power) and finally, number of conditions (4 for each series of blocks). The block design has the advantage of being easily implemented and analyzed and of having high statistical power.
- Designs linked to events: They are characterized by presenting conditions in a random way, such is the case of oddball tasks, it is a task of recognition of an infrequent stimulus that is randomly interspersed with the probability of low occurrence among a series repetitive of another more frequent stimulus, before which he should not give any response . The designs linked to events are less susceptible to phenomena of habituation, expectation and to the decrease of attention. However, compared to the block design they have a lower statistical power .
- Supervision of the patient while executing the paradigms, for experimental control of external variables such as tiredness, sleep or disinterest . And, Support for the interpretation of the results, establishing a relationship between the activated brain areas and the factors of brain function evaluated by means of the paradigms .
There are several areas and disciplines where functional magnetic resonance plays an important role:
- It allows to locate a cognitive process, both to define the functional organization of the brain and to plan a surgery [36,37]. Functional and pre-surgical maps. It allows to define the distance between a certain function and the lesion to be treated and to identify the effects of the lesion in the cortical representation of the function [38-40].
- Study the irregular functioning of the brain in patients, establishing if there are changes in the activated areas compared with healthy subjects. Characterize neurological and psychiatric diseases.
- Characterize the responses and function of certain regions of the brain.
- To evaluate how cerebral plasticity processes occur due to cognitive rehabilitation and compensatory activities. For example, in patients with multiple sclerosis , hearing comprehension in patients with aphasia  and new pattern of connectivity between cerebral hemispheres months after the start of treatment in patients with aphasia .
- Establish functional and effective connectivity, which differ from the structural connectivity observed through diffusion tensor images. This functional connectivity allows the study of activation patterns in different regions of the brain as well as their interaction, fundamentally in neurological or psychiatric pathologies that are not due to focal damage, but to alterations in the transfer of information between neuronal regions. [44,45].
- Follow up on pharmacological treatments. Target biomarker to evaluate the therapeutic response and the prognosis of patients. .
- Define hemispheric dominance for specific brain functions.
For the interpretation of brain activation areas, in addition to having knowledge of the neurocognitive processes involved in the paradigms used in the study, several considerations must be taken into account and errors in interpretation must be avoided: First, the individual differences: know that different situations that affect neurovascular coupling and generate differences between the individuals in the oxygenation state, such as: chronic cerebral ischemia, the proliferation of astrocytes due to brain injury causing gliosis, hypertension, diabetes or hypercholesterolemia, and the effects of some medications . Second: During rest in the paradigms of block design, regions such as the ventral medial prefrontal cortex or Brodmann area 10 and the precursor or area 7 of Brodmann can be activated, which corresponds to activation of the "default-mode network" widely characterized in functional resonance in rest state. The higher the level of education and therefore the cognitive reserve greater activity will be observed in the resting state . Third: The fact that an area is activated during the execution of a task does not imply that this area is indispensable for the task in question . Fourth: Failure to activate some areas expected during the execution of a task, does not allow assuming that they do not participate in the process. It is possible that it participates but that it is not catch. .
|Superior brain function||Paradigm||Activated brain areas|
|Oral language/denomination, with auditory and visual stimulation||Blocks
Activation: the patient is asked to read some sentences, for example: What do you write? and then select the appropriate answer within a group of words. It can be done orally but, the subject's response must be generating the word silently
Control: a series of non-linguistic symbols are displayed
|-Inferior frontal cortex|
|-Superior temporal cortex|
|-Bilateral Heschl area (primary auditory cortex), when the stimulus is auditory.|
|-Medial frontal gyry|
|-Parietal structures. When the stimulus is visual.|
|Oral language/Semantic decision. Visual stimulus||Blocks
Activation: The subject is presented with a pair of words that have a semantic relationship and one of the two words represents a subordinate category and two words without semantic category. It must say yes or no, the exposed words have a semantic relationship.
Control: You are presented with pairs of non-linguistic symbols matched by the form and you must select which are the same. Paradigm created by Mary Machulda, PhD, L.P. Mayo clinic, Rochester and Others 
|-Broca left area|
|-Lower left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex.|
|-Union of the posterior superior temporal gyrus and supramarginal gyrus of the parietal lobe.|
|-Temporal medial and inferior left Gyrus|
|-Supplementary areas of ocular movements|
|-Frontal areas of the gaze. And to a lesser degree Bilateral primary visual cortex|
|Language/Reading of text Vs Non- linguistic symbols||Blocks
Activation: You are presented with a very short narrative for 10 seconds and then a different one, which you must read and understand silently.
Control: You are presented with non- linguistic symbols at the same time as the narration. 
|-Posterior superior temporal gyrus of the dominant hemisphere for language.|
|-Parietal angular gyry (Wernicke area)|
|-Medial frontal gyry. When there is an answer|
|-Primary and secondary visual areas with non-linguistic symbols|
|Oral Language/Rhymes||Blocks||-Dorsolateral prefrontal cortex.|
|Activation: patients are presented pairs of words, some rhyme and others not. It must answer if they rhyme or not.
Control: You are presented with pairs of identical or not symbols and you must answer yes or no, if they are equal. Paradigma created by: JT Laurito, MD, PhD. [53-56]
|- Inferior Frontal Gyry|
|-Superior temporal gyry|
|-Cortical coating of the superior temporal sulcus.|
|-Fusiform gyrus of the ventral temporo- occipital cortex: visual area of the words|
|Oral language/Production of silent words||Blocks
Activation: The patient is presented with a letter and must think of all the words that start with that letter except for derived words.
Control: the subject is presented with a non-linguistic symbol .
|-Dorsolateral prefrontal cortex|
|-Inferior frontal gyry|
|-Cingulum - language area.|
|-Supplementary motor areas|
|-Motor and premotor regions|
|-To a lesser extent, the posterior cortex of the language (Wernicke) and the ventral temporo-occipital cortex.|
|Oral language/Designation of simple objects||Blocks
Activation: You are presented with simple or everyday objects that the patient must silently name.
Control: You are presented with a non- linguistic symbol. Paradigma created by: JT Laurito, MD, PhD. [53.58]
|-Inferior frontal gyry/frontal operculum|
|-Dorsolateral prefrontal cortex or Premotor cortex.|
|-Supplementary motor areas|
|-Ventral temporo-occipital cortex|
|-Posterior parietal temporal language cortex|
|-Inferior temporal Gyry|
|-Occasionally, the cortex of the temporo - parietal operculum and parietal temporo cortex.|
|-Areas for object recognition: Posterior inferior temporal gyrus and bilateral temporo-occipital cortex.|
|-Parietal visual areas including the intraparietal sulcus for visual attention and visuospatial processes|
|Oral language/Passive listening||Blocks
Activation: the evaluator reads the patient a short narration that he must listen to.
Control: The narration is done upside down. 
|-Superior temporal gyrus|
|-Mantle of the cortex of the superior temporal in the Wernicke are|
|-Superior temporal sulcus and medial temporal gyry.|
|-In some subjects the inferior frontal gyry is activated.|
|Oral language/Understanding language with visual stimulation||Blocks
Activation: The subject is presented with a couple of sentences, the second sentence is a question related to the first and must answer yes or no are related.
|-Medial frontal gyrus (Work Memory)|
|-Left Broca area in the inferior left frontal cortex|
|Control: Non-linguistic symbol. Paradigm created by: Keith Thulborn, MD, PhD, L.P. University of Illinois, Chicago.||-Superior posterior temporal gyrus. Wernicke area.|
|-Occipital lobes: extra visual area.|
|-Frontal visual area.|
|-Eye movements: Precentral sulcus. Medial frontal lobe and intraparietal sulcus.|
|Oral language/Word listening||Blocks
Activation: the patient must listen to words and the subject is stimulated to repeat it silently.
Control: fixing point. 
|-Temporal areas of language reception including:|
|-Bilateral temporal auditory primary cortex.|
|- Wernicke area.|
Activation: Two conditions: The patient is presented with several pictures of objects and the patient is asked to memorize them, then another list is
|-Cortical mesiotemporal and dorsolateral prefrontal regions.|
|Presented where there is one or two of the objects that were previously asked to memorize. You must answer yes or no, they are present. The photos are placed at an angle where the eye movements are decreased.
Control: fixing point
Paradigm created by: Keith Thulborn, MD, PhD, L.P. University of Illinois, Chicago
Activation of two conditions: Write names of different colors for example blue, red and green, but written in ink of different colors. For example blue written in green. The subject is asked to silently say the color of the ink in which the word is written and to inhibit the reading. Another condition is written the same three colors with inks of the same color.
|-Anterior cingulum, area 32 of Brodmann of the right hemisphere.|
|-Central cingulum, areas 31 and 23 of Brodmann of the left hemisphere.|
|-Caudate nucleus: right corpus and left cauda.|
|-Bilateral thalamus. |
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