- Dissemination of relevant research results to farmers;
- Assisting farmers to make wise decision in livestock management; and
- Getting the farmers into a frame of mind and attitude conducive to the acceptance of technological change. Also, farm and home visits (individual contact) method if properly harnessed appears to be one of the most popular extension teaching methods.
- Identify socio-economic characteristics of the respondents;
- Ascertain sources of information on poultry management among the respondents;
- Identify prospects of extension services in improving brood and sell poultry production available to the respondents; and
- Ascertain problems limiting the activities of poultry farmers.
The population of the study comprises all the poultry farmers involved in brood and sell in five communities of Isi Uzo local government area within Nsukka Agricultural zone of Enugu State, Nigeria. The communities include; Eha-Amufu, Ikem, Mbu, Neke and Umualor. Isi-Uzo Local Government Area is bounded in the North-West by Udenu L.G.A, in the South by Enugu-East L.G.A, North-East by Isi-Elu L.G.A of Ebonyi State. Eight respondents in brood and sell poultry production were randomly selected in each of the five communities from a list of brood and sell poultry farmers obtained from the veterinary unit of Agricultural Department of Isi-Uzo L.G.A Headquarters at Ikem. Generally, a total of forty (40) respondents in brood and sell enterprise were used. Structured interview schedule was used to elicit information from the respondents. Frequency, percentage and mean score were used for data analysis.
Distribution of respondents by sex in Table 1 showed that majority (70.0%) of the respondents was females while 30.0% were males. This is not far from expected as women in most traditional culture are known for keeping small livestock like poultry while the men folk keep larger livestock such as goats, sheep and cattle. The Table also indicates that majority (65.0%) were within the ages of 31-40 years, 20.0% where aged between 41-50 years while 15.0% were in the age bracket of 21-30 years. The mean age of the respondents was 36 years. This indicates that the brood and sell poultry respondents were relatively young and middle aged. This is an added advantage for adoption and spreading of innovative practices since young people are likely to accept and serve better as agents of innovation transfer. The findings is supported by Onu., et al. (2005) who noted that people in young ages were within a stage in life when their productivity would be at its peak given the enabling environment.
|Socio-economic Characteristics||Frequency||Percentage||Mean Score|
|Educational qualification (years)|
|Non- formal education||4||10.0|
|OND, NCE, HND/B.Sc.||2||5.0|
|Years of experience|
|Sources of fund|
|Loan from banks||2||5.0|
|Loan from friends & relations||11||27.5|
|Loan from government||1||2.5|
|Sources of stock|
|Distributors of day old Chicks||38||95.0|
|Annual income (₦)|
Table 2 revealed that 32.5% obtained information from extension agents on poultry management while the rest 67.5% had from other sources. About 25% of the respondents got information from fellow poultry farmers, 15.0% got from day old chicks dealers, 10.0% got from veterinary doctors, among others. This indicates a gap which could be filled through intensification of extension service delivery. This finding gave credence to Davidson., et al. (2001) who reported that three out of four Asian farmers had no contact with agricultural extension services. This necessitated the use of contact farmers to help disseminate information to other farmers in countries that practice T & V extension system. It was observed that mass media such as radio and television recorded low score. This confirms Agwu (2000) who reported that mass media (radio and television) did not play a leading role in informing farmers about improved production technologies.
|Source of information||Frequency||Percentage|
|ADP extension agents||13||32.5|
|Day old chicks dealers||6||15.0|
|Fellow poultry farmers||10||25.0|
|Radio and television||3||7.5|
Data in Table 3 showed constraint variables limiting the activities of brood and sell poultry enterprise. The major constraints include high cost of feeds and raw materials (85.0%), poor extension agents contact (65.0%), difficulty in procurement of quality stock (62.5%), high infestation of diseases (60.0%) and while illiteracy, housing, labour and record keeping were minor constraints. The finding is in consonance with a study carried out by Soyoola (1997) which revealed that high cost of feeds and raw materials have constrained poultry industry in Nigeria. Anyanwu., et al. (2000) reiterated that low level of extension agents was as a result of the low extension agent/farmer ratio pose a serious problem to poultry farmers in Nigeria.
|Poultry Operation||Major Problem||Moderate Problem||Minor Problem|
|High cost of feeds and raw materials||85.0||10.0||10.0|
|Inadequate drugs and veterinary services||65.0||20.0||15.0|
|High infestation of diseases||60.0||30.0||10.0|
|Difficulty in procurement of quality stock||62.5||25.0||12.5|
|Lack of labour||2.5||17.5||80.0|
|Poor extension agents contact||65.0||25.0||10.0|
|Inappropriate record keeping||10.0||10.0||80.0|
Data in Table 4 revealed the available extension services to the respondents. It showed that the respondents received 30.0% information of research results from extension agents. This finding corroborates that of Santucci (2002) who found that most Nigerian farmers depend on public agricultural extension agents for information from research centers. Others as perceived by the brood and sell operators include acceptance of new innovation (22.5%), management decision (17.5%) and source of market (10.0%). The position of the supply of inputs and credit finding supports that of Santucci (2002) who reported that agricultural extension service in Syria participates in farm input delivery and credit provision. This implies that prospects of extension services in improving brood and sell poultry production in the area needs to be addressed and intensified in order to live up to its expectations and also enable the poultry farmers reap the gains embodied in extension service delivery systems of the recent times.
|Prospects of extension services||Frequency||Percentage|
|Dissemination of research results||12||30|
|Acceptance of new innovations||9||22.5|
|Supply of inputs and credits||2||5.0|
|Provision of veterinary services||5||12.5|
|Source of market||4||10.0|
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