Review Article
Volume 1 Issue 6 - 2017
Characteristics of the Emotional Mind
Francesco Greco*
Behavioral Economist, University of Niccolò Unicusano, Rome, Italy
*Corresponding Author: Francesco Greco, Behavioral Economist, University of Niccolò Unicusano, Rome, Italy.
Received: December 06, 2017; Published: December 13, 2017
At the base of the economy as the other social sciences is always a theory of the actor. It identifies the salient characteristics of the subjects who, through their actions, give origin to the collective phenomena social and economic in nature. Among these features the most relevant are those that explain the origin of the behavior of the actor: because he acts in a certain way; what are the effects of context on his choice; what are the principles that guide or characterize its decisions.
Ultimately every action refers, explicitly or implicitly, to a theory of the mind. It represents, in a more or less detailed and direct causal variables responsible for generating the action. Generally in the economy the theory of the mind is not described explicitly and complete. It is in fact particularly psychological indications executions or implicit assumptions that are deducted from the principles of choice attributed to the plaintiff by the postulates of economic theory.
Keywords: Neuropsychological; Emotional mind; Neurons mirror and Emotional intelligence
The emotional mind is much more rapid than rational, because it passes to the action without even stop a moment to reflect on what to do. Its fast preclude reflection deliberate analytical and that characterizes the thinking mind. In the evolutionary process this rapidity is connected, very likely, the decision most essential, i.e. what should be careful and once vigilant (for example in front of another animal) to take in a fraction of a second decisions of the type: between the two of us who is the prey, i or him? The bodies that were to dwell too long to reflect on the answers to such questions were less likely to generate a numerous offspring to which transmit the genes that accounted for their slowness in the act.
The actions arising from the mind emotional are accompanied by a feeling of safety particularly strong, deriving from a way of seeing things simplified and quickly, that can appear absolutely shocking to the rational mind. To things done or even in the midst of the action we are surprise to think: "Because I did this?", a sign that the rational mind is waking up, but without the readiness of the emotional.
The great advantage is that the emotional mind can read an emotional reality in an instant, producing that judgment immediate intuitive that tells us who we should be wary of those who we can trust and those who find themselves in a difficult situation. The emotional mind is our radar to discover the danger; if we expected the intervention of the rational mind to formulate some of these reviews, we could not only go wrong, but even die. The disadvantage is that these impressions and these reviews are intuitive, occurring in a fraction of a second, may be erroneous.
Since the rational mind needs more time with respect to the emotional mind to record the impressions and to react, the "first pulse" in an emotional situation is dictated from the heart and not from the brain. There is also a second type of emotional reaction, slower response of the fastener, which hatching and ferments in our thoughts before bringing to a sentiment. This second track is more deliberate and generally we are aware of the thoughts that guide us toward it. In this type of emotional reaction, the guest is wider; our thoughts - the cognitive element - play a key role in determining what emotions will be aroused. Once formulated an assessment follows an appropriate response emotional. In this sequence slower, a thought more articulated precedes the feeling. Emotions more complex, as the embarrassment or apprehension for an exam imminent, follow a road slower, using seconds or minutes before develop: these are the emotions that arise from the thoughts.
Emotional Mind
On the contrary, in the sequence of rapid reaction sentiment seem to precede or be simultaneous with the thought. This emotional reaction snapshot occurs in urgent situations in which what is at stake is our survival. The power of these quick decisions is that we mobilise in an instant to face an emergency.
In general, the rational mind does not decide that emotions. "We have. On the contrary, the sentiments you have as a fait accompli. What usually the rational mind can check is the course of those reactions. Apart from a few exceptions, not for us to decide "when" be furious, sad and so on. The rational mind thinks based on objective evidence. The emotional mind, instead, it considers the convictions absolutely true and therefore underestimate any evidence to the contrary. This is why it is so difficult to argue with who is emotionally troubled: whatever the firmness of your subject from a logical point of view, it is not important if it conflicts with the emotional conviction of the moment. The sentiments you auto justify with a set of perceptions and "tests" all of them.
The operation of the emotional mind is largely linked to a specific state, dictated by particular feeling that it says in a certain moment. The way in which we think and act when we feel romantic is totally different from that which we adopt when we are angry or killed; in the mechanics of emotions, every feeling has its distinguished repertoire of thought, reactions and even of memories. These repertoires tied to a specific state become predominant in moments of intense emotion.
A signal that such a repertoire is active is the selective memory. Part of the reaction of the mind to a situation emotional is a reordering of memory and options for action, so that the most relevant are in position hierarchically higher and so are more easily put into practice. And, as we have seen, each important emotion has its biological mark: a set of radical changes which take in checkmate the body while the emotion salt - a series of automatic signals characteristic exhibited when it is in the grip of emotion.
The concept of preference is closely linked to emotion and shape in the mind of the individual before the execution of a behavior and often, even before an opinion aware of the subject. Preferences affect in different contexts, from those social, how the interactions and relationships with others, until economic areas and consumption as the decisions and the intentions of purchase.
The importance of the emotional intelligence is the skill that allows us to check our emotions and express so assertive. Even if the word "intelligence" is usually linked to the concepts of memory and cognitive ability, the mind is much broader and more from the last century scholars have dedicated to analyze other areas of the brain. Since the origins of human emotions facilitated the dances: the trunk brain, the most primitive of the brain that controls the basic functions, gave origin to the emotional centers and was only millions of years after that formed the neocortex, which gives us the ability to reason. It is precisely in this order that we act still today: before we try something and then we think about it; first hurts a finger and then we realize that has remained closed in the door.
In neuropsychological terms, Preferences form thanks to the psychological phenomena of learning, of acculturation and social conformity and at the same time originate in brain structures specifications. Usually the preferences interfere on the judgment or on particular attitudes toward another person or a thing without a reason explicit rational from the part of the subject. [1]
The preference intervenes and then, in the formation of judgment with respect to an object, attributing to it a label affective. These labels (positive and negative), are [2] placed on the subject only a fraction of a second after its appearance [3] before a cognitive assessment on the part of the subject. The process of assigning these labels is therefore extremely fast.
At this point we must introduce another concept that is one of the selective attention which constitutes a mechanism for impressive power in the lives of the people. Our brain processes on average from 11 and 40 million bits [4] of information every second, but only a very small part of the whole of the reality that our brain has processed there is returned when we are aware. [5]
Let a small example: a radar is designed to intercept the aircraft or moving objects and yet around the radar there are not only aircraft but there are mountains, palaces, roads and people. Why then does not report their presence. The answer is simple, he was programmed to see only the planes and sees only those. This is what I wanted for the selective attention that is a true radar that we have in our brain and that shows us only one on which we are concentrated and falls in what is defined as "attention state".
These considerations are useful to understand how the preferences take shape in the minds of individuals and then summarize, it is possible to affirm that family stimuli for the subject, that possess then some known characteristics, require a lesser processing and cognitive effort. [6]
With the entrance of neuroscience in marketing activity, many researchers have begun to explore the world of consumer preferences with the aim of understanding the extent to which they can be influenced by the communications companies and parallel study how these preferences affect the buying behavior of consumers.
Exploit the emotion is a classical technique for causing a short circuit on the rational analysis of an individual. Using the emotional aspect allows us to open the door for access to our unconscious to implant or inject Ideas, desires, concerns and fears, compulsions or inducing behaviors.
Another aspect to be considered in the decision-making process of each individual is that concerning the imitation. [7] The Swiss psychologist Jean Piaget during his studies he watched as babies learn in a hurry to answer for imitation. (Weepest thou? I am crying. Laugh? I laugh). In practice the brain, seen that must manage an amount of information per second, is the continuous search for a shortcut and, when between its programs it finds one corresponding applies it immediately. Other factors that contribute to create mental programs are the circles of influence; the people with whom you are grown and today that surround you. Your circle of influence has a power of programming on your brain and then when you are faced with a choice, your brain will activate the mental program of your circles of influence, and thou shalt take of the decisions in the direction of the way of thinking of your circle of influence. You do something or think, or even more simply the observed do for the brain makes little difference.
Runs the obligation to introduce the concept of neurons mirror. This discovery is to be attributed to [8] a group of italian researchers of the University of Parma that using new mapping tools of the brain, discover this type of neurons. The neurons mirror are a class of neurons that are activated when an individual performs an action and when the individual who observes it performs the same action. At this point we should ask ourselves the following question: which of your mental programs you purchased from other? Life is essentially a theater in which each one of us plays a role. The problem of this programming mechanism is that life is yours, but you see it through the eyes of others, which in turn has been programmed. The problem is that you believe that some thoughts,some ideas and decisions are yours, you're just performing mental programs learned for imitation. Each of us from birth is surrounded by a series of people and figures of reference. In this way we imitate their behavior and listen to their advice. There is nothing wrong in all this. The real problem of this mental mechanism lies in the fact that when you wake up one morning you realize you lived the life of someone else.
One of the most significant aspects that emerged from the studies scientific-neuro on decision-making processes, concerns the difficulties on the part of individuals to express verbally their emotions and sensations. [9] Assuming that consumers are likely to expose their sensations, there exists an objective impossibility to be part of the same in understanding what is happening in their minds. This difficulty occurs both in the situation in which a person must choose between alternatives and justifying its choice, both when the subject is asked to comment on and return the emotions experienced during the vision of an advertisement. The individual who answers the questions of the interviewer, is not able to reconstruct its involvement cognitive and emotional activated by a lived experience previously, his response that will be then a vague summary of the experience, conditioned by the filter of cognitive rationality.
The participants of the focus groups are in fact considerably influenced by other subjects and tend to provide answers that align with what the interviewers want to hear. Finally another aspect that affects the statements of individuals participating in research methodologies there is the traditional social desirability, namely the desire to please others and to position itself in a favorable light [10]
The supporters of the neuro-marketing say that thanks to instruments scientific neuro and biometric, it is possible to obtain information more objective and precise with respect to traditional methods, in order to understand the attitudes, beliefs, the views and the perceptions of consumers on the proposed contents by companies. The neuro-marketing studies the decision-making processes of purchase and constitutes the most accurate method for obtaining information from consumers about their emotions, in order to understand their preferences and, to a certain degree, also predirle.
In cognitive sciences (and consequently also in marketing) the need to understand the decision-making processes, has determined the passage from the old paradigm "Think- Feel-Act", which is representing men as rational beings, to the new paradigm "Feel-Act- Think" that instead emphasizes the importance of emotions and describes individuals as authors of emotional decisions.
When consumers must make decisions about what to buy, the brain retrieves and review incredible amount of memories, facts and emotions and collects in a rapid response, a kind of shortcut that allows you to analyze all the options and their associations in a few seconds and that determines the final choice of the decision-making process. This shortcut takes the name of " somatic marker" and has the function of connecting an experience, an emotion to [11] a specific reaction of the individual to help them instantly to restrict the range of possibilities available in a given situation and guiding it toward the decision with the best outcome.
The practices of neuro-marketing simply measure the brain activity and other physiological parameters, without the obligation to ask the right questions and develop questionnaires. This not only saves time but eliminates any risks. However, often the detections of neuro-marketing are accompanied, before and after the measurements, from questions and short interviews that serve as a tool for comparison between what customers say and what they "feel".
In its narrow sense the term neuro-marketing provides for the use of the techniques of brain imaging to identify the brain areas related to psychological phenomena such as: cognitive activities, thoughts, emotions, sensations and perceptions, considered in their biological dimension, i.e. pure chemical activations and neural.
This definition, which describes the neuro-marketing as a discipline that uses exclusively detection techniques of brain activity, is however reductive. In fact, fall in neuro-marketing the paradigms and the cognitive models of neuroscience studying the mental processes (explicit and implicit) and the behaviors of the consumer. [12]
Between the practices of neuro-marketing fall measurements of biometric variables that detect alterations of physiological parameters such as: the respiratory rhythm, skin conductance, dilation of the pupils, heartbeat, sweating, displacements of the fixation point eyepiece, facial expressions. Thanks to technological developments today is in fact possible to monitor and study these parameters in real time. The measurement of the biometric parameters takes place at the moment in which the experimental subject performs a task (cognitive or emotional), or during the vision of stimuli, for example an advertisement. These measurements are indirect (or passive) because it does not involve a verbal response of the subject, consequently are objective measurements that allow to obtain new information and superior quality, why not subject to the filter of the reason of the individual.
The relationship between our part rational and emotional that varies continuously along a gradient in each optimal time for our evolutionary development, indicating each time the need to linger to think and decide rationally or guide us immediately by emotion and an intuition, privileging the rapidity of the action. Since the rational mind needs more time to record the impressions and react accordingly, every impulse response is the result therefore of emotional mind: however there is, supports Goleman, a second type of emotional reaction, slower than the response-lightning, but more aware and conscious, influenced by the cognitive element and an assessment rather wide of other factors.
It is probably this type of emotional reaction that is raging in the case of the aesthetic experience, in which a feeling more articulated and more built precedes the onset of emotion, which in this case is one of the most complex and complete experience by man. Unlike our rational part, that follows the logic paths, cognitive, precise cultural, our emotional part is much more plastic and performs a continuous process of interaction with the people with whom we are in contact: thanks to the mutual influences and contamination, the emotions pass with ease from one person to another and therefore become communicable.
The neuro sciences applied to marketing can help identify the key aspects to make a product more attractive and more compatible with the needs of the customer. The research of neuro marketing on product, can be carried out both prior to its implementation, in the design stage design, both in the next phase of the launch of the product on the market, for example with studies concerning the effectiveness of the campaign to launch and presentation.
The use of such techniques before the launch of the product or of advertising or any other company's message direct to the consumer, allows you to check in advance if the efforts of those responsible for marketing will produce the desired results, or at least to understand the level of attention and emotional involvement that will be aroused in the consumer. Potential fields of application of neuromarketing are different. In relation to the objectives of the company, the techniques of neuromarketing can be strewn on marketing communications tools and on other areas in which the emotional involvement and the attention of the individual are essential factors of success.
The basic parameters examined in the methodologies of neuro-marketing are three: the first is the concentration, i.e. the extension with which the brain of the subject is involved in the execution of a task or during the vision of a stimulus. For the purposes of measuring the impact of a spot is important to understand if, during the vision of the content has been activated the portion of the brain connected to the ability to remember. Finally the third fundamental aspect is the detection of the emotional involvement aroused in the individual by the spot or from experimental task.
Finally, since it is known that individuals are not inclined to admit to difficulties or not to understand the operation of applications and instrumentation, it is interesting to compare the outcome of the tests of neuro sciences with the verbal feedback provided by users to elicit any inconsistencies.
1(Monahan., et al. 2000; Berridge, 2004)
2(Lazarus, 1991; Duckworth., et al. 2002)
3(Azar, 1998)
4Unit of measure binary.
5Only 50 bits of information that we remember at the time, the whole of the remaining is stored.
6(Graziano, 2010)
7Imitating is a form of learning that helps to create mental models,i.e. helps the brain to respond to the famous question: How does?
8Vilayanur S. Ramachandran declared: "neurons mirror will be for psychology what the DNA was for Biology".
9(Lucaci, 2012).
10For a deepening see link:
11(Damasio, 2000)
12(Droulers and Roullet, 2007)
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Citation: Francesco Greco. “Characteristics of the Emotional Mind”. Current Opinions in Neurological Science 1.6 (2017): 294-300.
Copyright: © 2017 Francesco Greco. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.