1. The electrolysis method. Two silver electrodes are inserted into a container filled with distilled water. The electrodes are subjected to an alternating current and occasionally a rectified DC version. Since water on its own impedes the flow of current, it requires salt in the water, hence electrolysis.
(a) All atomic clusters that have been formed are all of all different sizes, perhaps ranging in sizes from 20 to 100nm. At very large dimensions, nano silver becomes useless. It is thought that it are the small clusters of silver measuring 10nm or less and possessing an astronomical ratio of surface to volume that makes for a potent biocide. Very often this material can be identified by presenting a yellowish tinge. It means that the concentration is too high and/or the clusters are too large and too numerous. The yellowish effect is created through the absence of the spectral colours violet and indigo, because silver absorbs these colours. The opposite occurs with the Raleigh effect, i.e. our blue sky! xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
With no standard available and those involved in its research coping with less than a basic experience in what the properties of water suspended quantum nano silver clusters actually are, proper wording and descriptions to positively identify the material are not available either. To remedy this situation will require a whole new nomenclature for this particular science and associated technology. ‘Buzzwords’ like colloidal silver and AgNPs must be refrained from being used. First order of the day must include the introduction of a proper nomenclature, i.e. proper names and descriptions on anything relating to full and accurate use for describing all aspects of nano metre suspended silver. This will certainly rid the science and technology of confusing language and understanding as listed below:
A. The parallel resistance factor
Water itself can be considered to have an infinite resistance being classed as di-electric and thus an insulator. The highest practical resistance in the Industry lies in the Tera Ohm region, i.e. 1012 Ohm. Some commercial solid state operational amplifiers boast an input level of 1.5 Tera Ohm. This enables these devices to measure extremely high resistances, i.e. Tera Ohms (1012 Ohm) as well as extremely low currents in the Pico ampere regions, i.e. (10-12 ampere/h). However it is debatable if water actually offers an electrical resistance, i.e. impede the flow of current as when we measure current in the water. Instead it are the positive ions (charge carriers) that we measure and resistance does not come into the equation. Nevertheless a thought experiment converted into a practical experiment referred to as “Testing the resistance of water without testing the resistance of water” did show that the parallel resistance factor of Ohm’s Law can be used in measuring some sort of resistance artefact. Parallel resistance can be explained by taking two identical resistors, both measuring 1,000 Ohm. If connected end to end in parallel, the combination will measure 500 Ohm, because the current (electron flow) will have a choice of two paths. If however one of the resistors has a lower resistance then the other, more current will flow through the lower value resistor. This is called “current hugging”.
- A 10 litre tank almost filled with deionised water and two partially submerged silver electrodes.
- A variable high Ohm potentiometer (resistance) of a 1 Million Ohm resistance.
- A high voltage combined with a low controlled and limited current DC power supply. 300 Volt and deliberately limited to 50 micro ampere full scale deflection.
- Two identical analogue panel meters rated at 50 micro ampere full scale deflection (FSD).
DC input resistance is the loading of a measuring device it presents to whatever it is measuring. For alternating current that name is Impedance or Z. For instance, if a multimeter, digital or analogue has an internal input resistance of 1 million Ohm and the particular quantity of water has the same resistance, i.e. 1 million Ohm, the actual measurement will give a result at 500,000 ohm. That is an error factor of 50%. A 10 million ohm would have a 10% error factor and a 100 million Ohm, a 1% error factor. For my experiments I use a self-built 10,000 million Ohm input resistance. Instrument. Compared to that, a vacuum tube voltmeter as used in the mid-900s, had a maximum input resistance of 1,000 million Ohm, adequate for most purposes when repairing and testing Black & White television sets. An analogue based water conductivity measuring instrument boasting a DC input resistance of 10,000 million Ohm is shown hereunder:
Ohm’s Law, the brainchild of Georg (Simon) Ohm a German mathematics professor, was introduced in 1825. It originated when Ohm realised that direct current flow through a conductor is directly proportional to the potential difference (a DC voltage potential) and inversely proportional to the resistance of the circuit through which this current flowed. His name is used to name the unit Ohm.
Is the electrical resistance between opposite faces of a 10mm x 10mm x 10mm cube, i.e. 1 cubic cm or cm3 of a given conductive material? It is the reciprocal of electrical conductivity.
Are directly related to the electrical properties of solid state conductors, in particular that of metallic conductors. It has nothing whatsoever to do with the properties of water and whatever its conductance may be it is unable to conform to the stated conditions nor be measured for its Ohmic resistance. It is still debateable if indeed water, a dielectric and an insulator, does possess a resistance, albeit a very high one and beyond the capability of most instruments. It is also beyond the reasoning of the Author how such values as Ohm, Conductivity in Siemens and Resistivity and its measurement per cm (10mm or cm2) can be introduced for measuring the conductivity of water. That something is amiss with the science of wet chemistry is evidenced by the disagreement on the actual resistance of water quoted as 18.24 million Ohm by one group and a 100 million Ohm by another.
- How it is measured, i.e. at a high or low input resistance and the loading factor involved.
- The actual quantity of the water.
- The size and shape of the tank.
- The material the tank is made of. And if there are conducting metals in close proximity.
- The input resistance of the instrument and its probe
- The contamination level of the water, i.e. the ionic content and uncharged carriers
- The fact that charge carrier flow in water does not flow in a straight line (linea recta) and is also subject to the lines of force [43-57].
Unless a common standard is developed covering all aspects of any experimentation and trials, results cannot be compared with others. Not doing so will continue the existing chaos. One of these causing the most chaos is the inability of many producers to remove ionic silver content. The second serious flaw is a ‘mixed bag’ of cluster sizes that may range from 10nm to 200nm. The problem with large clusters is it would form the bulk of the concentration and a loss of effectiveness as a biocide.
- A proven method of production such as the electro-photochemical process, whereby metallic silver is ionised and immediately reduced/neutralised by intense irradiation of violet light at around 420nm. At that wavelength water offers no impediment to its radiation. It works this way: metallic silver anode and cathode are partially immersed in water and subjected to a voltage potential high enough to allow a certain amount of current to flow. In the case of this new production method, a voltage potential of 300vdc and a current of 500 micro ampere is applied. Using this this particular voltage and controlled/ limited current removes silver atoms from the anode. In this process, the removed atom loses its outer electron and changes into a silver cation (ionic silver with a positive charge). It is attracted to the cathode that is also partially submerged in the water some distance away. In order to stop this from happening the anode and cathode are separated by a distance of no less than 200mm. The electron removed from the silver atom (negative charge) is now held captive by the water molecules with its hydrogen atoms orientating themselves around the intruding hydrated electron. The cation, also in the water is totally dissolved. A simultaneously applied intense irradiation of violet light at 420nm at an electron volt level at around 2.95 and one of the photons colliding with the hydrated electron, will impart its energy. It does so by forming a virtual particle named a photon-electron. A silver cation nearby (positive) accepts such a photon-electron (negative) and is reduced to a neutral silver atom once more. However the process of stability has not been established until it meets up immediately with another newly formed neutral silver atom. This pair of neutral silver atoms each donate the outer electron and form a dimer (two atoms). This valence bond so-made establishes long-term stability. The entire process of reduction by photonic action is often referred to as Photo-Electron Transfer. This method of production requires no more than switching it off when the required concentration is reached. The end result is nano metre sized atomic silver clusters, produced by quantum action in a range of 3 to 10nm with the bulk of the concentration between 5 and 7 nm.
- Atomic silver clusters so formed would be uniform in size within a narrow size distribution, i.e. between 3 and 10nm. The repelling action between the atomic clusters, valency bonded, would present an equally distributed Zeta potential for good stability.
- Water quality must be adequate for the required current of 500 micro ampere at 300vdc to enable ionic silver formation at a suitable rate. A precise analogue based water purity tester with an input resistance of 10,000 million Ohm will be essential so as not to load the water and thus provide an accurate indication of the water purity. To also determine the extent of both uncharged organic and inorganic matter contamination, a light scattering cross polarization instrument will detect levels of contaminants at nano metre dimensions and also quantify same by measuring the level of obscurity in the water caused by any contamination by means of photo sensitive devices
- Water purity for electro-photochemistry must preferably be rated at 0.1 micro Siemens or better, the equivalent of 10 million Ohm resistivity. A slightly higher conductivity at 0.22 micro Siemens has nevertheless proven workable. Hazardous substances such as lead and arsenic should not exceed 10ppb.
- Neutral atomic clusters produced must be small enough to offer the largest surface area ratio to volume possible. Experimentation has proven that the wavelength used, i.e. approximately 420 nm, produces cluster sizes from 3nm to 10nm. A singular wave length (Mono-chromatic) is bound to produce an even narrower band, perhaps 3nm instead of 7 nm. It is considered that the smaller clusters are able to move in closer to their targets and coupled by the quantum confined electrons they contain ensure a greater success eradicating any pathogens. It should be noted that a number of Fungi such a Candida Albicans also succumb to nano silver’s Oligo-dynamic properties.
- Establishing concentration and Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC), the production of ionic silver and subsequently reconstituted to a neutral silver (no longer metallic) is determined by current over time (in ampere over hours, i.e. ampere/). Attempts have been made to calculate the concentration being produced at the applied current rate, but this has proven unsuccessful so far due to a number of factors which are presently unknown and mainly related to water. Since concentration and MIC are measured in ppm equal to mg/l, it would be prudent to either use 1 litre of water or fractions thereof. The smaller the quantity of water used the quicker the desired concentration or MIC is reached. According to tests conducted at Griffith University 3.3 ppm appeared to be an adequate concentration for the eradication of some pathogen (bacteria and fungi) ‘in vitro’. The use of larger quantities of water would produce only a small concentration over an extended period. However because of needing a specific distance between the anode and cathode to ensure COMPLETE REDUCTION by irradiation, too small a tank would fail in that endeavour.
There are a number of issues with neutral suspended silver that should be avoided at all costs. These are:
- Not to apply so-called capping agents. The killing action of silver is the ‘Oligo-dynamic effect’, i.e. the action of electrons such as that of “FREE RADICALS”. Silver is an inorganic element that has been reconstituted to a new material that operates within the realm of Quantum Physics. Certain properties such as ‘not being subject to gravity’, Local Plasmon resonance and the Photo-electric effect are not found in other metals. Capping agents would only insulate silver’s ability to kill pathogens with its outer electrons.
- Do not add water to dilute the produced concentration so as to arrive at the desired MIC. Any additional water would not have gone through the process of the initial ionization and subsequent neutralisation of the silver and the actual ionisation of the water molecules when subjected to the 300 volts DC during production. Instead it would make more sense when arriving at the desired concentration to stop the production process. This way, batches can be made at 3ppm, 5ppm, 10ppm etc. The problem of this practice is that of determining the required concentration. Normally this could be measured on an instrument such as an Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrophotometer (ICP MS). Unfortunately it would not be able to distinguish between neutral and ionic silver. A relatively less costly electronic device under construction, using the principle of Capacitance Reactance is expected to do so better and more precise.
- Silver is a transitional metal that normally is not used by the body like iron and calcium are. During the transition to neutral atomic clusters in an electrical suspension in water it remains INORGANIC and unrelated to organic matter such as antibiotics and other chemistry. Using this silver in combination with anything at all, will have confusing outcomes. Initially this new silver material should be used on its own before trying it out with other matter. Even a combination of ionic and neutral silver would only provide tainted outcomes. The individual properties of both neutral and ionic silver AND organic matter are so different, they cannot possibly be compared.
- Do not expose neutral silver in water to ambient light, in particular SUNLIGHT as well as temperatures in excess of 15 degrees during use or storage. Also it should not be contained in containers made of soda glass for fear of leaching and contaminating the material with sodium. It will turn the liquid alkaline. Containers made of borosilicate glass or the plastic used for soft-drink bottles are both considered safe for long term storage. The plastic material mentioned is known as PET. This abbreviation stands for Polyethylene terephthalate.
- Do not ingest nano metre sized atomic silver clusters, i.e. ’in vivo’. Too little is known about this material. Most scientists don’t even possess a basic knowledge of quantum nano silver and only identify the product as AgNPs. Its use should be restricted to external uses only, i.e. ears, mouth, skin and some other orifices. It must not reach the blood system as there is a potential threat when very small nano silver clusters reach the brain via the blood supply causing possible electrical interference [19-39].
- This instrument operates to the principles of Ohm’s Law by measuring current over time at a voltage level of 1 volt DC or less so as not to exceed the equilibrium voltage of water (1.23 volts DC) that would otherwise break-up the water molecules into Hydrogen and Oxygen gasses.
- It operates exclusively on direct current (DC) and at a very high input resistance of no less than 10,000 million Ohm. It is generally assumed that 1 micro Siemens equals 1 million Ohm and for 0.1 micro Siemens that would be 10 million Ohm. Using an analogue or digital multimeter with an input resistance of 10 million Ohm, the actual reading would be out by 50%. Increasing the input resistance to 100 million Ohm would provide a 10% accuracy and a 1,000 million (mega) Ohm a 1% accuracy. The instrument described offering a 10,000 million Ohm would than give a 0.1% accuracy. This would allow measurement of ionic content without the usual impediment found in most other instrumentation.
- The instrument is based on analogue principles and for most purposes, consistent at most ambient temperatures.
- Accurate readings are instantaneous and repeatable without much change.
- The probe uses very pure silver electrodes that do not corrode like many other electrodes do.
- This instrument measures current flow in water between two partially submersed silver electrodes AND a variable resistor external to the tank. When the entire system is in balance, the two panel meters will each show half of the total current in the system. An out of balance system will also indicate the ‘current hugging’ phenomena.
- It is the only REAL ‘water resistance tester’.
- This instrument uses an electronic bridge system to measure the principle of Capacitance Reactance in pico and nano Farad capacitance ranges from 10-12 and 10-9 Farad respectively. The smaller the quantity of neutral silver, the lower the Farad measurement. More neutral silver and thus a greater concentration in ppm or mg/l, the greater the reactance. If high enough measurements, readings will be in the nano Farad range.
- The accuracy of the bridge operation will determine the accuracy of the concentration. Note! Few instruments are able to accurately determine concentration in the parts per million (ppm) and generally a Mass Spectrophotometer is used. However it has its shortcomings as well
Note! Water generally contains a mixture of ionic (charged matter) and a combination of uncharged inorganic and organic matter that, if in sufficient quantity, will cause obstruction to light scattering (turbidity). This can be quantified by sensitive electro-optical means. Enhancing this methodology with linear cross polarization will enable a distinction to be made between materials in the water with a refractive index at visible wavelengths, i.e. between 700 and 400nm and material that does not. Silver has the highest reflectivity of all metals and only absorbs visible light at 420nm, Violet coloured spectral light. It works this way: when both the polarizer and analyser are in phase, light scattering is picked-up from all matter down to nano metre sizes. However when the controlling polarising filter is turned 90 degrees, the scatter from the silver remains visible. The other matter’s scatter will simply disappear from sight.
- The instrument also serves as an indicator of turbidity in the water. The higher the turbidity, the higher the contamination level. It is recommended to test the all water prior to nano silver production.
- The instrument also uses it photosensitive properties to determine levels of silver concentration. It will not be accurate but levels in production can be compared.
- The cross polarization part of the instrument can also be extended with a filter option. Introducing a violet light source and a violet pass filter at the absorption factor of silver will make the light scattering of silver disappear as well, proving that the scatter of light from the silver clusters is actually Silver.
- An instrument extended with a variable UV/VIS diffraction system, similar as a spectrophotometer, will enable other metals in the mix also to be identified by their wavelength absorption characteristics. For most metals however that will be in the ultra violet region, except for gold, which is red-shifted toward the middle of the visible spectrum.
(a) It is doubtful that an analogue instrument exists capable of measuring the Zeta potential between single atoms or cluster of atoms suspended in water. A Zeta potential is described in the literature as a static electrical interfacial charge between the water and matter which has a hydrophobic relationship with the water it is suspended in. In the case of silver atomic nano sized clusters, the Zeta potential charge is zero at the Iso-electric point and a minus 100mV at its maximum. It is also said, that at around -30mv, the repelling charge is strong enough to negate the attractive forces of the ‘van der Waals’ force. A high Zeta potential is thus an indicator of stability. As stated, the Zeta potential is a potential between an individual particle, a molecule or atomic cluster and the water. Nano-particulate matter ranges from approximate 100nm (10-7) to 1nm (10-9). Diffraction limits the resolution of an optical microscope to about 200nm, a magnification of 1,500 times. Some instruments claim to measure Zeta potential in a collective way. It is questionable if a collective Zeta potential actually exists. However I am working on designing an instrument and probe that is able to measure the Zeta potential at a local concentration of silver clusters. The probe will need to be screened with a miniature Faraday cage, to stop other signals from interfering.
- It is now possible to measure resistances in the high Giga Ohms, i.e. 1,000 Million Ohm (109) to 100,000 million Ohm (1011) and currents as small as 1 nano ampere (10-9). A number of operational amplifiers with input resistances of 1 Tera Ohm and even 1.5 Tera Ohm (10s) are commercially available at relatively low cost. Instruments using such devices will enable other properties of nano metre sized silver to be identified as well.
- The significance of these seemingly extreme levels of current and resistances, is for the benefit of obtaining equally extreme precision in measurement in determining the properties of water. Just like measuring conductivity with a conductivity meter measuring micro Siemens and resistivity using the concept that high conductivity equates to low resistivity and high resistivity being the reciprocal of low conductivity. These high and low values work exactly the same way, albeit adding voltage potential to the equation. All inorganic and organic substances inhibit the flow of electrical current. Copper, silver and gold possess low resistances and are excellent conductors. Water, glass and plastics do not and are considered insulators. With water at least this opposition to current flow can be lowered with an applied voltage potential. Experiments substantiated with actual use has shown that at a DC voltage potential of 300 volts, a current of 500 micro ampere can flow. Increasing this voltage potential to 600 volts DC shows a three-fold increase to 1,500 micro ampere, i.e. 1.5mA.
- Under normal conditions the so-called resistance of water, which is not really a resistance but an opposition to charge carrier flow, i.e. ionic flow. This is in turn is determined by the contamination of the water and any ionic matter also contained therein, is very sensitive to being loaded by the input resistance factor of the measuring instrument [1-51].
Many things in life present themselves as a friend or foe and often a balance needs to be struck between the benefits and any possible inherent risks. Silver is like that and so are antibiotics and chemotherapy. They may heal but also kill and often indiscriminately. It simply responds to conditions and circumstances at the time. It is all a question of balance and an ideal example of this would be immunity against pathogens invading the body or the reverse as presented by auto-immune diseases where the immune system attacks itself or perhaps some more severe than others. There is also the research done in parts of the British Isles where survivors of the bitter conditions of WW II developed Diabetes II decades later in life and spoken off as a result of an auto-immune disease [76- 88].
Free radicals are defined as molecules whose atoms contain an unpaired electron that can easily be removed due to oxidative effects. It is the referred to as a free radical in search of another electron forming part of a stable molecule that itself will become a free radical in search of an electron. After some extensive research and putting known information together, we can draw the conclusion that copper, silver and gold can most likely be considered as having characteristics of being a free radical. Some of the evidence that points that way are:
- Copper has an unpaired electron in its 4th outer electron shell, silver in its 5th and gold in its 6th outer shell. All three are claimed to be endowed with the oligo-dynamic effect.
- An oligo-dynamic effect (by an oligomer) ensures that bacteria and many other bacteria are unable to survive on a copper, silver and gold surface. All three metals are worn as ornamental jewellery on the hands and other body parts. Many older doors are fitted handles that are either brass or copper for the same reason.
- In particular silver, which possesses a very much heightened light sensitivity compared to other matter, cannot exist as a single neutral atom for long before returning into an ionic state. So when the opportunity avails itself, it will form a covalent bonded dimer, i.e. each unstable single neutral silver atom donates its unpaired valence electron to ensure relative stability.
- As ionic silver in an aqueous medium it will try and seek out neutrality by attaching itself to substances that have an excess electrons such as sodium chloride and forming silver chloride.
- On its own as a neutral silver atom or cluster of atoms all covalently bonded (in an aqueous medium) and considered hydrophobic will despite its apparent neutrality present an external highly negative charge. This was reported by Professor George Maass from the Colloidal Science Laboratory in the United States on several occasions. It is most likely formed by the Stern Layer, i.e. water molecules orientating themselves by polarization, i.e. hydrogen atoms (positive) turned inward toward the silver atoms and the Oxygen atom (negative) outward as described in the DLVO theory, Derjaquin, Landow, Verwey and Overbeek and the associated Double Layer Concept.
- Oxygen in particular has a tendency to promote free radical production such as the Hydroxyl radical (Lewis structure) which is claimed to contain an unpaired electron. Particularly in metabolism and exercise.
- Silver in any state appears to have Free Radical properties and that no doubt explains its biocidal qualities as well.
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